In information technology, bandwidth is the maximum amount of data that can be sent through a network channel over a given period of time. For example, a fiber-based internet connection might be capable of transmitting 1 gigabit of data per second, or a particular Wi-Fi connection might be capable of moving 11 megabits per second.
In information technology, redundancy means simultaneously running duplicate or backup computer components that perform the same function. When you have redundant servers, if one dies, the backup server can quickly take it's place with minimal interruption to services (this is called failover).
A proxy is an intermediate person or thing that represents someone else, or does a task on someone else's behalf. For example, voting by proxy is the practice of passing your voting rights to a stand-in person, who then casts that vote on your behalf. There's even a tradition called a proxy wedding, where "one or both of the individuals being united are not physically present, usually being represented instead by other persons."
VPN stands for virtual private network, a computer networking technology that enables users to securely connect to each over the Internet (or a similar public network) as if they were on the same private network/intranet.
In general terms, binary means involving two things. You can have a binary decision with only two answers or a binary compound made up of only two elements. In mathematics and computing, binary numbers are expressed using binary digits (also known as bits), which can have one of two values, either a one or a zero.
A server is a computer or a computer program that provides a service and performs tasks for other computer devices, which are known as clients. In the client-server model, clients make requests of the server, which then sends a response in return.
Latency is the delay between initiating an action and something happening as a result, which can also be defined as the lag between a stimulus and a response. In computer networking, latency is often used to describe the time it takes for a data packet travel from a source to its final destination.
IPv6, short for Internet Protocol version 6, is the latest version of the internet protocol (the thing that provides IDs for networked devices so that internet traffic can be properly routed). IPv6 is designed to replace IPv4, the version still most commonly used.
DDoS, short for distributed denial of service, is a type of cyberattack used to overwhelm a website or service to the point that it can no longer perform its intended function. DDoS attacks work by sending a flood of requests to targeted servers in such a high volume that the servers can't keep up with the spike in activity. Programs that launch DDoS attacks are now readily available on the internet, and these attacks have grown in size and frequency in recent years as anyone can launch them with relative ease.